Treatment plans are tailored to the individual and are based upon findings from a detailed
history, observation of posture and movement as well as a palpatory (hands on) assessment. Treatment may include a combination of manual therapy, electrotherapy, an exercise programme and stretches.

Manual therapy

Refers to techniques performed with the hands and can reduce muscle spasm, relieve pain, reduce adhesions, increase mobility and range of movement and minimise swelling.

  • Peripheral and spinal joint mobilisation
  • Soft tissue mobilisation e.g. myofascial release, trigger point release, reflex inhibition, massage
  • Passive stretches, range of movement exercises and spinal rounding reflexes


This is an umbrella term used to cover a range of treatments involving the application of
electromodalities to injured tissues. It may be used to target pain, stimulate muscle and/
or promote tissue repair. For it to be most effective, it is important to select the appropriate
modality with consideration of the stage of healing and tissue involved; a decision requiring
an extensive working knowledge of the physics and evidence behind electrotherapy.


Ultrasound therapy is a high frequency mechanical vibration delivered by a small
treatment head. It is most effective in promoting tissue healing in tissues high in
collagen content such as ligaments, tendons, fascia, joint capsules and scar tissue.


TENS is a method of electrical stimulation used to provide drug-free pain relief by
stimulating sensory nerves. Depending on application and settings, it stimulates the
pain gate mechanism and/or the opioid system thereby providing pain relief.


Laser, an acronym for Light Amplified by Stimulated Emission of Radiation, can
stimulate cells in the body that repair tissue, reduce inflammation and transmit pain.
It is most effective in superficial vascular tissue such as open wounds, muscle, nerves
and tendon sheaths. In addition, high intensity single point lasers can release trigger
points and treat acupuncture points instead of needles.

Electromuscular Stimulation (EMS)

This delivers an electrical signal to tissues and can be used in the treatment of nerve
and muscle injuries, warm up muscles before exercise, provide pain relief, re-educate
movement, release muscle spasm and increase circulation.

Exercise and Rehabilitation Programmes

An individual programme may be devised to further assist in correction of movement
patterns, increase range of movement and strengthen muscles.
Programmes will differ depending on the type and extent of the original problem, or injury, and the overall expected level of function. These may include baited stretches, pole exercises, ground and/ or ridden exercises.